Regulation on pathogenesis of myocarditis by PD-1/PD-L1 pathway
Received:May 05, 2019  Revised:May 29, 2019
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Key words:myocarditis; immune checkpoint; programmed cell death protein 1; programmed cell death-ligand 1
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
HU Shunying 解放军总医院第一医学中心 
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      Myocarditis is a disease characterized by the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in the myocardium, which can lead to inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and ultimately to congestive heart failure. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is one of immune checkpoints that negatively regulates immune responses by interacting with the specific programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and plays important roles in establishing peripheral tolerance to the heart. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway was reported to restrain myocarditis through regulating T cell activity, cardiac autoantibody and inhibiting inflammation, which is related to genetic susceptibility. Several blocking monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed and have been shown effective to treat tumors. However, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors related myocarditis is life-threatening and brings out poor clinical outcome. Immune checkpoint inhibitors related myocarditis is probably due to breakdown of peripheral immune tolerance to the heart and leads to more poor prognosis than general myocarditis. We reviewed the researchs on regulation of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway on myocarditis , providing further understanding on the mechanism underlying myocarditis. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway could be a new target of therapeutic strategies for myocarditis.